In this post Insha Allah i will try to cover some of the Hadiths which are quoted by people to say that it is a proof for reciting Surah Fatiha behind the Imaam.
Hadith No. 1
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ النُّفَيْلِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ مَكْحُولٍ، عَنْ مَحْمُودِ بْنِ الرَّبِيعِ، عَنْ عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ، قَالَ: كُنَّا خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي صَلَاةِ الْفَجْرِ فَقَرَأَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَثَقُلَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْقِرَاءَةُ، فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ قَالَ: «لَعَلَّكُمْ تَقْرَءُونَ خَلْفَ إِمَامِكُمْ» قُلْنَا: نَعَمْ هَذًّا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: «لَا تَفْعَلُوا إِلَّا بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ فَإِنَّهُ لَا صَلَاةَ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَقْرَأْ بِهَا»
SANAD (Chain of Narrators)
Imam Abu Dawud Rh. »»► Abdullah bin Muhammed An Nufaili Rh. »»► Muhammed Ibn Salama Rh. »»► Muhammed bin Ishaq Rh. »»► Makhool Rh. »»► AN Mahmooh bin Rabii Rh. »»►Ubaada bin Saamit Rdh. »»► Rasoolullah S.A.W.
This hadith states that Rasoolullah S.A.W said to (Sahaba Rdh.): maybe you recite behind the Imaam?
We (Sahaba Rdh.) said Ya Rasoolullah ! we recite in haste.
Rasoolullah S.A.W said: Only recite Surah Fatiha, because without it the salaah is not complete and don't recite anything else. (Sunan e Abi Dawud : Hadith 823)
In this post i will try to put forward the Daleel of not reciting Surah Fathiha behind the Imam and in the Second part we will look at the hadiths which are quoted by some to justify its recitation. Insha Allah
The Holy Quran
وَإِذَا قُرِئَ الْقُرْآنُ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ وَأَنْصِتُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
"When the Qur'an is voiced, hearken unto it, and listen in silence, so that you might be graced with [God's] mercy." [Surah Al A’araf : 204]
Lets look at the Tafseer / explanation of the above ayah from the Sahaba and the Salaf.
Daleel No. 1
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الأَشَجُّ، ثنا ابْنُ فُضَيْلٍ وَأَبُو خَالِدٍ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ أَبِي هِنْدَ عَنِ أَبِي نَضْرَةَ عَنْ أُسَيْرِ بْنِ جَابِرٍ الْمُحَارِبِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ: لَعَلَّكُمْ تُقِرُّونَ؟ قُلْنَا: نَعَمْ قَالَ: أَلا تَفْقَهُونَ؟ مالكم لَا تَعْقِلُونَ؟ وَإِذَا قُرِئَ الْقُرْآنُ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ وَأَنْصِتُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ.
SANAD (Chain of Narrators)
Imam Ibn Abi Haatim Rh. »»► Abu Saeed Al Ashaj Rh. »»► Ibn Fuzail Rh., »»► Abu Khalid Rh. »»►Dawud Ibn Abi hind Rh. »»► Abi Nadhrah Rh. »»►Usair bin Jabir Rh. »»► Abdullah bin Masood Rdh.
Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood Rdh. said to the (Muqtadees) maybe you recite behind the Imaam, Muqtadees said: Yes.
So Ibn Masood Rdh. said: Don't you have the understanding, what has happened to you, you are not using your wisdom, When Quran is recited, give ear to it and be silent so that you may receive mercy. (Tafseer Ibn Abi Haatim : Hadith No 8730, SAHEEH SANAD)
In this day and age, the Sunnah has become one of the most misunderstood paradigms of our Deen , because we've come to think that the Sunnah is something that can be jettisoned from the Deen - that the sunnah is something heavy that needs to be removed from the deen to make the deen light and nimble and flexible. But it's actually totally the opposite. If a person truly desires a connection with Allah, then the only way that connection can occur is through the Sunnah of Rasoolullah S.A.W
This is very important for people who are striving in the deen to comprehend. We will not approach Allah by removing the Sunnahs from our life . It has been the habit of the pious predecessors before us and the pious that will come after us to seek out every Sunnah that they can find..
The command of Allah is "Ateeullah war rasool---Obey Allah and His Messenger". In this day and age, we have a classification of our legal system, so we say that "This act is fardh, this act is waajib, this act is sunnah muakkadah, this act is sunnah ghair muakkadah, this act is nafl, this act is mustahab.....etc etc.".
However, the Companions (radiyallahu anhum) didn't make any distinction between fardh and Sunnah. Whatever they saw the Prophet S.A.W do, they did and whatever he told them to do, they did. There was no distinction at that time that "Oh this is fardh and this is a Sunnah" If it came from Rasoolullah S.A.W it was to be done. Period. They made no distinctions.